Hukum Kriminalisasi Penyebaran Berita Hoax dalam Tinjauan: Refleksi atas Hoax Covid-19 dan Penolakan Omnibus Law

Cindy Bella Devina(1*), Dissa Chandra Iswari(2), Go Christian Bryan Goni(3), Devi Kimberly Lirungan(4),

(1) Universitas Airlangga
(2) Universitas Airlangga
(3) Universitas Airlangga
(4) Universitas Airlangga
(*) Corresponding Author




Abstract

Keberadaan hoax di Indonesia ada sejak lama. Perkembangan pesat penggunaan media sosial dan kemudahan pertukaran informasi mempercepat persebaran informasi hoax tersebut. Bahkan, dalam pandemi COVID-19 sekalipun, berita hoax mengenai virus corona dan hal-hal yang berkaitan dengannya tersebar luas di masyarakat. Berikutnya, ketika massa banyak menolak Omnibus Law, pemerintah Indonesia menyatakan bahwa penolakan tersebut disebabkan oleh hoax. Alhasil, ada beberapa orang yang ditangkap dengan menggunakan UU ITE sebagai landasan. Berbagai praktisi dan akademisi hukum mendukung pembuat dan penyebar berita hoax dapat dikriminalisasi, tapi tidak tanpa catatan. Artikel ini melakukan tinjauan hukum secara normatif mengenai kriminalisasi berita hoax. Tinjauan dilakukan memakai teori demokrasi deliberatif. Menggunakan kerangka teori ini, peneliti menemukan bahwa aspek-aspek demokrasi seperti substansi dialog dengan informasi yang akurat tidak terpenuhi akibat berita hoax. Hal ini sejalan dengan kehendak konstitusi Indonesia.  Hanya saja, kriminalisasi hoax ini perlu dipastikan tidak disalahgunakan penguasa atau pihak yang lebih lemah untuk mengekang kebebasan berpendapat. Cara yang dapat digunakan untuk mencegahnya adalah dengan menambahkan aturan baru untuk melibatkan pihak ketiga independen dalam sengketa berita hoax yang melibatkan pihak pemerintah atau pejabat pemerintah.

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DOI: 10.32694/010960

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